A Bonsai Dictionary Accent plant – A small plant that accompanies a bonsai on display and should suggest the same place and time of year as the tree.  Often called a companion plant.  It may be a dwarf version of a grass, moss, hosta, small flower or other species.  Adventitious buds - Dormant buds lying under the bark of a tree that might develop into new branches if branches are lost above that point on the tree. Akadama - A traditional Japanese bonsai soil component composed of red volcanic matter.  It is used on many types of deciduous bonsai trees. Apex - The highest point of the tree.  The shapes of trees are often defined by a scalene triangle and the apex will be the top of the triangle.  The Apex of a conifer is often well defined but on deciduous or older trees, it may be defined by the top of a curve. Apical - An adjective describing the top of the tree often used to describe where a particular species exhibits the most growth ( as opposed to lateral).  (ie: Most pines are apically dominant.) Backbudding - A process by which adventitious buds are induced to grow further back along the branch or trunk. This can be induced by vigorous pruning and/or good feeding.  Bare-root - The process of removing all of the existing soil from the root system of a tree.  The process is usually advisable for material that was growing in heavy clay.  The process can be carried out in stages for most nursery stock grown in fast-draining nursery mix.   Broad-leaf - Broad-leaved trees are a group belonging to the angiospermsor flowering plants which have seeds enclosed in an ovary. With notable exceptions, they are deciduous and go dormant from Autumn through to Spring. Bud - Organ or shoot that contains an embryonic branch, leaf or flower. Buttress - This is also known as root-flare, where the base of the tree flares outwards giving the feeling of great age and solidity. Bud break - The point at which a bud has opened enough to show a green tip. Bud pushing - The point at which buds are just beginning to swell in the spring.  This is often a good time for repotting and pruning (expect on plants the flower in the spring).  Cambium Green growth tissue directly below the bark, its increase adds to the girth of roots and stems and results in the yearly rings on a tree. Callus Tissue that forms over a wound on a branch or trunk as part of the healing process. Candle - Name given to the extending bud of a Pine before the new needles open. Canopy - The collective term for the upper-most branches that form the top of a tree. Chop stick - One of the more inportant tools for working on bonsai, though they can be expensive since you generally have to buy a meal to get them.  The are good for working soil down around the roots od a newly transplanted tree.  It is often worthwhile having several sizes including a big one for bigger trees.  Chlorosis - Loss of chlorophyll and leaf color as a result of mineral deficiency. Collected tree - A tree taken from its natural habitat  In the best cases, they have been shaped by the forces of nature alone. Companion plant – A small plant that accompanies a bonsai on display and should suggest the same place and time of year as the tree.  Often called an accent plant.  It may be a dwarf version of a grass, moss, hosta or other species.  Concave cutter A rounded cutter giving a concave cut for removing material in a manner that leaves a hollow spot that can later be filled by callus.  Also called a knob cutter. Conifer - Conifers belong to the group of naked-seeded plants known as gymnosperms. Their seeds are not enclosed in an ovary. Conifers have leaves which are needle-shaped or scale-like. With a few notable exceptions, they are evergreen. Cut Paste - Any of a variety of products used to seal the wounds on a tree where branches have been removed and dead-wood is not desired.  Dead-wood - Wood on a bonsai that is left exposed to give an impression of age and a difficult life to a tree.  See jin and  shari.  Dessication – Caused by a lack of water; desiccated leaves usually occur when the roots are unable to supply water to them.  This can be the result of forgetting to water.  In the winter, frozen soil and a dry windy day can quickly lead to dessication.  Deciduous - A plant that sheds its leaves each year in Autumn- this can be a broad-leaved or more rarely, a coniferous tree. Defoliation -The process of partly or completely removing the leaves of a tree during its early summer growth period to induce a crop of finer, smaller leaves which can greatly increase ramification.  Intentional defoliation can be a useful process.  Inadvertent defoliation by forgetting to water or by a late frost in the spring is to be avoided.  Diagonal cutter A strait-edged cutter where the blades are at a diagonal from the handle.  Used primarily for heavier cuts and creating jin.  The three sizes shown here are for very small trees, regular bonsai work, and for exceptionallt large trees.  Dieback - Death of growth beginning at tip from disease or injury.  Winter dieback is not uncommon, particularly in trees that have been pruned too late in the season.  Dissected - Deeply cut into segments or lobes as in the leaves of some Japanese maples. Dormant – A period of no growth.  All trees are dormant in the winter when temperatures are below about 40 °C and photosynthesis has stopped.  Many trees are dormant during the hot summer months, feeling that it is sufficient just to stay alive.  Permanent dormancy is a state to be avoided.  Dormant oil – One of a variety of water-dispersable oils sprayed on plants to keep aphids and mites under control.  Be warned that application to blue-tinted conifers will turn them green for a period of time.  It is frequently applied as trees are put into winter storage.  Follow the application instructions.    Ericaceous - A term referring to acid loving, lime-hating plants.  Azaleas are a prime example.  Evergreen - A plant that remains in leaf all year. It should be noted that evergreen trees slowly shed their oldest leaves at certain times of the year (depending on species) as they are replaced by new growth.  These include most conifers and trees like boxwood and some azaleas.  Foliage pad - A small individual mass of foliage on a branch; sometimes referred to as a cloud.  Foliage pads are refined by keeping the trimmed so that they are individually identifiable.  Generally pads should not be vertically aligned because the upper pad will shade the lower pad.  Girth - The circumference of the trunk of a tree measured at soil level. Graft – A noun used to describe a tree that has been attached to hardier root stock or root- stock that leads to a desirable trait in the tree.  It is also a verb used to describe the process of adding branches or roots to an existing tree to enhance the appearance of that tree.  Shown here is an unsightly graft that would not be acce[ptable on a bonsai but is common in yard plants.  Hardy - A term used to describe trees capable a withstanding winter weather.  Hardiness changes from region to region.  Descriptions of hardiness on this web site are for the MidAtlantic region.   Internode – The woody growth between two nodes (leaves or leaf-joints).  It is generally desirable to choose trees with short internodes or to maintain short internodes by constant pruning.  Jin - A branch of dead wood on a tree or live wood turned into dead wood.  A noun, but often used as a verb to describe the process of stripping bark off a live branch.  Not to be confused with gin which is what we drink while working on trees.      Juvenile foliage – Most often seen in junipers, these are the young leaves, often sharp pointed growth of a tree that produces two distinct shapes of greenery.  The second type being mature foliage that is more corded in nature.  Knob cutter – A rounded cutter giving a concave cut for removing material in a manner that leaves a hollow spot that can later be filled by callus.  Also called a concave cutter.    Lateral Growth - Growth to the side as opposed to apical growth.  (ie: Short wide trees such as Birds Nest Spruce are laterally dominant.)  Layering - Ground and air-layering are methods of producing new roots from the trunk or branches of a tree; often used as a propagation method but also useful for correcting poor surface rots (nebari). Leader - The main shoot at the top of a tree, usually indicating the uppermost continuation of the trunk.  These are very apparent in young trees but should be less clear in more mature trees.  Lime Sulfur - A chemical used to whiten and preserve a section of stripped branch or trunk in order to preserve a jin or shari.  In this application, it is applied at full strength with a paint brush, avoiding any bark or other live areas of the tree.  It is also used to prevent fungal growth and is used according to instructions.  WARNING:  This has a very foul odor and is to be used outdoors only.  Linnaean taxonomy - Biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturæ  (1735) and subsequent works.  This is a lot more than you probably want to know.  Family - A group of genera whose members resemble one another in several respects   Genus - Closely related and similar plant species   Specific epithet – This term follows the generic name, and with it, comprises the species name. For example, in the case of Molinia caerulea-Molinia is the genus, carulea is the specific epithet, and the whole is the name of the species   Subspecies - Differs from others of the same species in one or more characteristics.  Abrv. subsp.   Variety - Botantical variety differs from others of the species,i.e.flower color.   Abrv. Var.  Cultivar - or cultivated variety, is a group of plants under cultivation whose members differ from other members of the same species in one or more characteristics.   Common name - The name typically used in the nursery trade.  These names may vary geographically. Mature foliage – Most often seen in junipers, these are the secondary more corded foliage that follows the juvenile sharp pointed growth of a tree that produces two distinct shapes of greenery.  Nebari - Commonly-used Japanese term to describe the surface roots of a bonsai (those that can been seen on or above the surface of the soil). New wood - A stem or twig on a bonsai that originated during the current season's growth. Node - Growth point on a branch or trunk from which leaves, leaf buds and shoots can arise. Material – Pre-bonsai stock from a variety of sources.  It may come from nurseries, vendors at bonsai meetings, collection from the wild or a neighbor’s yard, or from other bonsai enthusiasts who have taken the unusual step of reducing their collection.  Mallsai - The trees that appear at the mall periodically and that are sold as bonsai.  They are often dead upon purchase or shortly thereafter.  They are the most common cause for the phrase, “I had a bonsai once, but it died.”  Old wood - A stem or twig on a bonsai that originated during the previous season's growth or at an earlier time. Penjing - The Chinese term for bonsai.  Generally more loosely styled than Japanese trees.  They frequently depict a scene and may be placed on a marble slab to represent water.  Pinching - A technique used in bonsai cultivation for controlling and shaping the growth of foliage by pulling off soft new shoots with the finger and thumb in a pinching motion.  It can also refer to very light trimming with scissors.  Pot-bound - The adverse state of a container-grown plant where the root growth has filled the container to the extent of eliminating all vital air spaces.  This is the signal that root- pruning and repotting is required.  Prostrate - The characteristic growth habit of a plant that naturally tends to grow along the ground instead of upright.  This is the antithesis of apical growth.  Pruning - The process of controlling the shape and growth rate of a tree by cutting back the shoots, stems and branches.  Some low level of pruning is required throughout the life of a bonsai.  Very substantial pruning is usually described as styling.  Raceme - A type of elongated flower that is composed of individual stalks all growing from a central stem – for example the flower type found on wisteria. Ramification - The repeated division of branches into secondary branches. Rootball - The large mass of roots and soil visible when a tree is taken out of its pot or pulled from the ground. Root hook- A tool useful for untangling the roots when a tree is being repotted.  Often long roots will encircle the root ball and this tool is useful for finding the beginning and end of a root.  Root pruning - The practice of cutting back the roots of bonsai in order to make room in the container for fresh soil and to encourage new root growth.  One of the failings of beginners is to remove enough roots during the repotting process.  Rootstock - The root system and main stem to be used as the base of a new tree when propagating through grafting.  Many nursery Japanese maples and pines are on rootstock that differs from the top of the tree.   Scion - The small section of a tree which contains all of the desirable characteristics of the parent tree that will be propagated into a new tree through grafting on top of the rootstock. Scissors – The most useful tool for maintaining the styling of a tree.  Most scissors useful for bonsai have large rounded handles that fit the hand well.  Seasonal Bonsai - Species that look their best for a short period of the year, for instance trees grown for their flowers or fruit.  Witch Hazel are the first blossoms of spring, but their leaves are too large the rest of the year.  Wisteria are often grown only for their blossoms.  Shari - Deadwood on the trunk of a bonsai (as opposed to Jin which is a deadwood branch or protrusion). Style – The Japanese have classified trees into a variety of styles and they use a specific nomenclature.  Please see the accompanying page on styles for both the Japanese and English nomenclature.    Styling - The process of substantially altering the shape of a tree by cutting and wiring the branches of a tree.  Size – The Japanese have classified trees into a variety of sizes and they use a specific nomenclature.  Please see the accompanying page on size for the Japanese nomenclature and English descriptions.    Soil – Not to be confused with dirt.  Bonsai soils used for growing bonsai are special mixes of larger-grained materials designed for good water drainage. Organic soils are those that contain ingredients derived from plants; peat, bark or leaf litter. Inorganic soils contain inert materials, mineral, stone or hardened/fired clays such as grit, sand, akadama, kanuma, or Turface. Suiban - A shallow tray with no drainage holes that is commonly filled with either gravel or water and can house rock plantings. Suiseki - Stones that appear to look like large boulders or mountains and represent the spirit or essence of each; sometime used in a formal bonsai display.  See the Ameriseki portion of this website.  Sumo – An unofficial, coined term for particular bonsai, usually small, that have an exceptional girth and taper in the trunk.  Sphagnum moss - Long-fibered moss used for layering or other situations where water is to be retained.  Itshould not be a component of a bonsai soil mix.  Tokonoma – A traditional display area in a Japanese house.  Frequently, bonsai are brought inside for a short period to be displayed with accent plantings and calligraphy. Tools – The four primary tools for bonsai styling are a saw, scissors, diagonal cutters and knob cutters.  Of course, these come in a variety of sizes and there are many other specialized tools. 
Contact Home About Us Meetings Trees Creating Bonsai Pots Display Galleries Stones Information Contact Us Apex  Jin  Shari  Nebari
Brandywine Bonsai Society is an educational organization and as a result, the material in this site may be copied for educational purposes.  If large portions are copied, we would appreciate attribution.  We welcome links to this site. 
A Bonsai Dictionary Accent plant – A small plant that accompanies a bonsai on display and should suggest the same place and time of year as the tree.  Often called a companion plant.  It may be a dwarf version of a grass, moss, hosta, small flower or other species.  Adventitious buds - Dormant buds lying under the bark of a tree that might develop into new branches if branches are lost above that point on the tree. Akadama - A traditional Japanese bonsai soil component composed of red volcanic matter.  It is used on many types of deciduous bonsai trees. Apex - The highest point of the tree.  The shapes of trees are often defined by a scalene triangle and the apex will be the top of the triangle.  The Apex of a conifer is often well defined but on deciduous or older trees, it may be defined by the nursery stock grown in fast-draining nursery mix.   Broad-leaf - Broad-leaved trees are a group belonging to the angiosperms in an ovary. With notable exceptions, they are deciduous and go dormant from Autumn through to Spring. Bud - Organ or shoot that contains an embryonic branch, leaf or flower. Buttress - This is also known as root-flare, where the base of the tree flares outwards giving the feeling of great age and solidity. Bud break - The point at which a bud has opened enough to show a green tip. Bud pushing - The point at which buds are just beginning to swell in the spring.  This is often a good time for repotting and pruning (expect on plants the flower in the spring).  Cambium Green growth tissue directly below the bark, its increase adds to the girth of roots and stems yearly rings on a tree. Callus Tissue that forms over a wound on a branch or trunk as part of the healing process. Candle - Name given to the extending bud of a Pine before the new needles open. Canopy - The collective term for the upper-most branches that form the top of a tree. Chop stick - One of the more inportant tools for working on bonsai, though they can be expensive since you generally have to buy a meal to get them.  The are good for working soil down around the roots od a newly transplanted tree.  It is often worthwhile having several sizes including a big one for bigger trees.  Chlorosis - Loss of chlorophyll and leaf color as a result of mineral deficiency. Collected tree - A tree taken from its natural habitat  In the best cases, they have been shaped by the forces of nature alone. Companion plant – A small plant that accompanies a bonsai on display and should suggest the same place and time of year as the tree.  Often called an accent plant.  It may be a dwarf version of a grass, moss, hosta or other species.  Concave cutter for removing material in a manner that leaves a hollow spot that can later be filled by callus.  Also called a knob cutter. Conifer - Conifers belong to the group of naked-seeded plants known as enclosed in an ovary. Conifers have leaves which are needle-shaped or scale-like. With a few notable exceptions, they are evergreen. Cut Paste wounds on a tree where branches have been removed and dead-wood is not desired.  Dead-wood - Wood on a bonsai that is left exposed to give an impression of age and a difficult life to a tree.  See shari.  Dessication – Caused by a lack of water; desiccated leaves usually occur when the roots are unable to supply water to them.  This can be the result of forgetting to water.  In the winter, frozen soil and a dry windy day can quickly lead to dessication.  Deciduous - A plant that sheds its leaves each year in Autumn- this can be a broad-leaved or more rarely, a coniferous tree. Defoliation -The process of partly or completely removing the leaves of a tree during its early summer growth period to induce a crop of finer, smaller leaves which can greatly increase ramification.  Intentional defoliation can be a useful process.  Inadvertent defoliation by forgetting to water or by a late frost in the spring is to be avoided.  Diagonal cutter A strait-edged cutter where the blades are at a diagonal from the handle.  Used primarily for heavier cuts and creating jin.  The three sizes shown here are for very small trees, regular bonsai work, and for exceptionallt large trees.  Dieback - Death of growth beginning at tip from disease or injury.  Winter dieback is not uncommon, particularly in trees that have been pruned too late in the season.  Dissected - Deeply cut into segments or lobes as in the leaves of some Japanese maples. Dormant – A period of no growth.  All trees are dormant in the winter when temperatures are below about 40 °C and photosynthesis has stopped.  Many trees are dormant during the hot summer months, feeling that it is sufficient just to stay alive.  Permanent dormancy is a state to be avoided.  Dormant oil – One of a variety of water-dispersable oils sprayed on plants to keep aphids and mites under control.  Be warned that application to blue-tinted conifers will turn them green for a period of time.  It is frequently applied as trees are put into winter storage.  Follow the application instructions.    Ericaceous - A term referring to acid loving, lime-hating plants.  Azaleas are a prime example.  Evergreen - A plant that remains in leaf all year. It should be noted that evergreen trees slowly shed their oldest leaves at certain times of the year (depending on species) as they are replaced by new growth.  These include most conifers and trees like boxwood and some azaleas.  Foliage pad - A small individual mass of foliage on a branch; sometimes referred to as a cloud.  Foliage pads are refined by keeping the trimmed so that they are individually identifiable.  Generally pads should not be vertically aligned because the upper pad will shade the lower pad.  Girth - The circumference of the trunk of a tree measured at soil level. Graft – A noun used to describe a tree that has been attached to hardier root stock or root- stock that leads to a desirable trait in the tree.  It is also a verb used to describe the process of adding branches or roots to an existing tree to enhance the appearance of that tree.  Shown here is an unsightly graft that would not be acce[ptable on a bonsai but is common in yard plants.  Hardy - A term used to describe trees capable a withstanding winter weather.  Hardiness changes from region to region.  Descriptions of hardiness on this web site are for the MidAtlantic region.   Internode – The woody growth between two nodes (leaves or leaf-joints).  It is generally desirable to choose trees with short internodes or to maintain short internodes by constant pruning.  Jin - A branch of dead wood on a tree or live wood turned into dead wood.  A noun, but often used as a verb to describe the process of stripping bark off a live branch.  Not to be confused with gin which is what we drink while working on trees.      Juvenile foliage – Most often seen in junipers, these are the young leaves, often sharp pointed growth of a tree that produces two distinct shapes of greenery.  The second type being mature foliage that is more corded in nature.  Knob cutter – A rounded cutter giving a concave cut for removing material in a manner that leaves a hollow spot that can later be filled by callus.  Also called a concave cutter.    Lateral Growth - Growth to the side as opposed to apical growth.  (ie: Short wide trees such as Birds Nest Spruce are laterally dominant.)  Layering - Ground and air-layering are methods of producing new roots from the trunk or branches of a tree; often used as a propagation method but also useful for correcting poor surface rots (nebari). Leader - The main shoot at the top of a tree, usually indicating the uppermost continuation of the trunk.  These are very apparent in young trees but should be less clear in more mature trees.  Lime Sulfur - A chemical used to whiten and preserve a section of stripped branch or trunk in order to preserve a jin or shari.  In this application, it is applied at full strength with a paint brush, avoiding any bark or other live areas of the tree.  It is also used to prevent fungal growth and is used according to instructions.  WARNING:  This has a very foul odor and is to be used outdoors only.  Linnaean taxonomy - Biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his (1735) and subsequent works.  This is a lot more than you probably want to know.  Family - A group of genera whose members resemble one another in several respects   Genus - Closely related and similar plant species   Specific epithet – This term follows the generic name, and with it, comprises the species name. For example, in the case of Molinia caerulea-Molinia is the genus, carulea is the specific epithet, and the whole is the name of the species   Subspecies - Differs from others of the same species in one or more characteristics.  Abrv. subsp.   Variety - Botantical variety differs from others of the species,i.e.flower color.   Abrv. Var.  Cultivar - or cultivated variety, is a group of plants under cultivation whose members differ from other members of the same species in one or more characteristics.   Common name - The name typically used in the nursery trade.  These names may vary geographically. Mature foliage – Most often seen in junipers, these are the secondary more corded foliage that follows the juvenile sharp pointed growth of a tree that produces two distinct shapes of greenery.  Nebari - Commonly-used Japanese term to describe the surface roots of a bonsai (those that can been seen on or above the surface of the soil). New wood - A stem or twig on a bonsai that originated during the current season's growth. Node - Growth point on a branch or trunk from which leaves, leaf buds and shoots can arise. Material – Pre-bonsai stock from a variety of sources.  It may come from nurseries, vendors at bonsai meetings, collection from the wild or a neighbor’s yard, or from other bonsai enthusiasts who have taken the unusual step of reducing their collection.  Mallsai - The trees that appear at the mall periodically and that are sold as bonsai.  They are often dead upon purchase or shortly thereafter.  They are the most common cause for the phrase, “I had a bonsai once, but it died.”  Old wood - A stem or twig on a bonsai that originated during the previous season's growth or at an earlier time. Penjing - The Chinese term for bonsai.  Generally more loosely styled than Japanese trees.  They frequently depict a scene and may be placed on a marble slab to represent water.  Pinching - A technique used in bonsai cultivation for controlling and shaping the growth of foliage by pulling off soft new shoots with the finger and thumb in a pinching motion.  It can also refer to very light trimming with scissors.  Pot-bound - The adverse state of a container-grown plant where the root growth has filled the container to the extent of eliminating all vital air spaces.  This is the signal that root- pruning and repotting is required.  Prostrate - The characteristic growth habit of a plant that naturally tends to grow along the ground instead of upright.  This is the antithesis of apical growth.  Pruning - The process of controlling the shape and growth rate of a tree by cutting back the shoots, stems and branches.  Some low level of pruning is required throughout the life of a bonsai.  Very substantial pruning is usually described as styling.  Raceme - A type of elongated flower that is composed of individual stalks all growing from a central stem – for example the flower type found on wisteria. Ramification - The repeated division of branches into secondary branches. Rootball - The large mass of roots and soil visible when a tree is taken out of its pot or pulled from the ground. Root hook- A tool useful for untangling the roots when a tree is being repotted.  Often long roots will encircle the root ball and this tool is useful for finding the beginning and end of a root.  Root pruning - The practice of cutting back the roots of bonsai in order to make room in the container for fresh soil and to encourage new root growth.  One of the failings of beginners is to remove enough roots during the repotting process.  Rootstock - The root system and main stem to be used as the base of a new tree when propagating through grafting.  Many nursery Japanese maples and pines are on rootstock that differs from the top of the tree.   Scion - The small section of a tree which contains all of the desirable characteristics of the parent tree that will be propagated into a new tree through grafting on top of the rootstock. Scissors – The most useful tool for maintaining the styling of a tree.  Most scissors useful for bonsai have large rounded handles that fit the hand well.  Seasonal Bonsai - Species that look their best for a short period of the year, for instance trees grown for their flowers or fruit.  Witch Hazel are the first blossoms of spring, but their leaves are too large the rest of the year.  Wisteria are often grown only for their blossoms.  Shari - Deadwood on the trunk of a bonsai (as opposed to Jin which is a deadwood branch or protrusion). Style – The Japanese have classified trees into a variety of styles and they use a specific nomenclature.  Please see the accompanying page on styles for both the Japanese and English nomenclature.    Styling - The process of substantially altering the shape of a tree by cutting and wiring the branches of a tree.  Size – The Japanese have classified trees into a variety of sizes and they use a specific nomenclature.  Please see the accompanying page on size for the Japanese nomenclature and English descriptions.    Soil – Not to be confused with dirt.  Bonsai soils used for growing bonsai are special mixes of larger-grained materials designed for good water drainage. Organic soils are those that contain ingredients derived from plants; peat, bark or leaf litter. Inorganic soils contain inert materials, mineral, stone or hardened/fired clays such as grit, sand, akadama, kanuma, or Turface. Suiban - A shallow tray with no drainage holes that is commonly filled with either gravel or water and can house rock plantings. Suiseki - Stones that appear to look like large boulders or mountains and represent the spirit or essence of each; sometime used in a formal bonsai display.  See the Ameriseki portion of this website.  Sumo – An unofficial, coined term for particular bonsai, usually small, that have an exceptional girth and taper in the trunk.  Sphagnum moss - Long-fibered moss used for layering or other situations where water is to be retained.  Itshould not be a component of a bonsai soil mix.  Tokonoma – A traditional display area in a Japanese house.  Frequently, bonsai are brought inside for a short period to be displayed with accent plantings and calligraphy. Tools – The four primary tools for bonsai styling are a saw, scissors, diagonal cutters and knob cutters.  Of course, these come in a variety of sizes and there are many other specialized tools. 
Home About Us Meetings Trees Creating Bonsai Pots Display Galleries Apex  Jin  Shari  Nebari
Brandywine Bonsai Society is an educational organization and as a result, the material in this site may be copied for educational purposes.  If large portions are copied, we would appreciate attribution.  We welcome links to this site.